Principles of Home Decoration With Practical Examples (TREDITION CLASSICS)

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Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan The author presents a grim vision of human beings in their natural state, which becomes the basis for his argument that a practically omnipotent government is necessary to secure a basic level of justice and elementary freedoms. John Locke, The Second Treatise of Civil Government Chapter 14 examines the circumstances in which government can act in violation of the law or in the absence of law.

Chapter 19 concerns the right of the people to overthrow a ruler or government when either has abused his power. Share: Share on Facebook. Add to Cart. Does The Prince present justice as nothing more than the interest of the stronger? Does Machiavelli believe that ethical considerations have a role to play in the conduct of a prince? According to Machiavelli, what roles do fate and fortune play in human life? Does Machiavelli believe that political entities are created by human effort, or do they exist naturally? In securing the state, to what extent should a prince be motivated by the happiness of the people?

Why does Machiavelli believe that a prince must be willing to use force to achieve his ends? According to Machiavelli, do moral ends justify immoral means? How does Machiavelli define virtue? Why does Machiavelli end his work with a plea for the House of Medici to liberate Italy? Must political power always be a corrupting influence on those who possess it?

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Learn More About The Prince print. LitFlash The eBooks you want at the lowest prices. Read it Forward Read it first. Pass it on! Dosage form, also known as routes of administration, is a mixture of components with medicinal properties and nondrug components excipient or vehicle. It describes the physical form in which medication will be delivered into the body. Currently, there are more than 40 available dosage forms of CHM products in the market.

Liniment, poultices, plasters, and ointments are adopted for external use of CHM. Pao-Zhi is a very ancient part of the practice of Chinese medicine, dating back at least 2, years. There are more than 30 kinds of procedures involving stir-frying Chao , calcining Daun , steaming Zheng , boiling Zhu , and so forth. Experience has shown that the effectiveness and security of some CHMs are dependent upon their correct Pao-Zhi before being used in clinic.

Regardless of the primitive processing technology that was used in ancient times, the rationale underlying the traditional processing of CHM has been supported by scientific evidence in modern research. Figure 3 shows the traditional processing methods of CHM, together with their pharmaceutical processing procedures, which are still employed in the pharmaceutical industry of CMM in China [ 57 ]. The CHM industry has always been one of China's traditional competitive industries. As of today, there are 8, products related to CHM in the China market.

In , China manufactured 2. More than 8, varieties of CHMs or related herbal products are now exported from China to more than countries and regions worldwide; each year, more than 50 kind of CMMs are exported to the United States, including berberine, angelica, licorice, Fritillaria, turmeric, frankincense, Tianma, rhubarb, Eucommia, cloves, wolfberry, Panax, fresh ginseng, and pinellia [ 60 ].

More importantly, in recent decades, China has put a great deal of human efforts and financial resources to promote research and development in the area of CHM in a systematic manner, and this enormous effort is unmatched by other traditional medicines around the world. In this context, we have published reviews on the status of CHM research and development as well as drug discovery in China [ 24 ]. In China, 3, extracts, 64, compositions, 5, single compounds, and kinds of CHM-related chemical drugs have been developed [ 22 ].

From the marketing perspective, currently, four models of application and five types of Chinese herbal products can be adopted in the international arena. The same approach may also be applied to other herbal medicines Figure 4. Styles of Chinese herbal medicine CHM in the global market see also [ 62 ] of quasi-chemical model and [ 63 — 65 ] of full-chemical model.

Currently, 70 percent of Indians still rely on IM for their primary health care [ 66 ]. In India, the history of using plant resources for treating diseases can be dated back to 6, to 4, BCE, the Buddhist period. AYM has a vast literature in Sanskrit and various Indian languages, covering various aspects of diseases, therapeutics, and pharmacy. The earliest references to such plants, minerals, and animal products with their usage for medical purposes are found in the Rig veda , an ancient Indian sacred collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns, and the Atharvaveda , the fourth and last Veda of Hindu literature [ 67 ].

In this text the various concepts of drug composition and action were described [ 72 ]. The Charaka Samhita is the first recorded treatise fully devoted to the concepts and practice of Ayurveda, with a primary focus on therapeutics [ 73 ]. The next landmark in Ayurvedic literature was the Sushruta Samhita. Although the text places special emphasis on surgery, it also describes medicinal plants, 57 drugs of animal origin, and 64 minerals or metals as therapeutic agents [ 74 ] Figure 5.

Some important texts of Indian herbal medicine [ 76 — 78 ].

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In India, approximately 25, plant-based formulations are used in traditional and folk medicines [ 83 ]. The number of plant species used in various IM is as follows: Ayurveda, 2,; Siddha a type of ancient traditional Indian medicine , 1,; Unani a system of alternative medicine first developed by the Islamic physician Avicenna in about CE , 1,; homeopathy, ; Tibetan, ; modern, , and folk, 4, [ 84 ].

More than 7, plant species are currently used in IM, including tonics, antimalarials, antipyretics, aphrodisiacs, expectorants, hepatoprotectants, antirheumatics, and diuretics [ 85 , 86 ], as well as for the therapy of certain central nervous system disorders [ 87 , 88 ]. The IHMs are derived either from the whole plant or from different organs, like leaves, stem, bark, root, flower, seed, and so forth, but also include animals and minerals.

Some drugs are prepared from excretory plant products such as gum, resins, and latex. Commonly used spices, herbs, and herbal formulae are utilized for therapeutic interventions in about 28 kinds of chronic diseases in humans [ 89 ]. Special herbal preparations, known as Rasayans , are used for rejuvenation and retarding the aging process, thereby promoting longevity [ 90 ].

Many valuable medicinal plants are on the verge of extinction. The Red Data Book of India in has entries of endangered species of which 28 are considered extinct, endangered, 81 vulnerable, rare, and 34 insufficiently known species [ 91 ]. Herbs used in AYM include essential oils extracted from plants, fruits, vegetables, and common spices. The crude herbal material may be ground into powders and put into capsules, cooked into teas, used topically, taken raw, and so forth. Kasthoushadhies herbal preparations and Rasaoushadhies herbo-bio-mineral-metallic preparations are the two major groups of IMM preparations [ 93 ].

The latter has a metallic base but ordinarily does not contain active metal, since the metal is converted into an ash or oxide and forms an organometallic compound with a number of organic materials used for trituration as Bhavana Dravya [ 94 , 95 ]. Medicinal principles are present in different parts of the plant such as root, stem, bark, heartwood, leaf, flower, fruit, or plant exudates.

Generally, the herbal remedies can be in various crude dosage forms like pills, powders, essential oil, infusions, or poultices. AYM believes that Sandhana kalpana biomedical fermented formulations , a unique and complex dosage form containing acidic and alcoholic fermented components, is one of the most effective dosage forms of Ayurveda in practice for thousands of years [ 96 ]. During the fermentation process of liquid basic drugs, such as juices or decoctions, alcohol is produced by in-source material used in pharmaceutical procedure.

Thus, extraction of active principles of the herbal drugs is done through self-generated alcohol. This formulation has longer shelf life, quick absorption and action, and excellent therapeutic efficacy as compared to other preparations [ 97 ]. The specific media are usually used in the manufacturing process of IMM products according to the different preparation. On the other hand, Ayurvedic drugs are usually administered orally along with vehicle materials Anupana such as honey, sugar, jaggery, ghee, milk, warm water, and juice of some medicinal herbs. These Ayurvedic Anupana i. Dosage forms and pharmaceutical techniques in Indian herbal medicine IHM [ 99 , ].

The treatment of disease by Ayurveda is highly individualized and depends on the psychophysiologic status of the patient, particularly in relation to the season of the year [ ]. The 6th Indian Pharmacopeia released in recognized 55 crude herbal drugs, 26 extracts, 3 finished formulations, and 2 pharmaceutical aids that are marketed [ ].

According to a study commissioned by the Associated Chamber of Commerce and Industry, the Indian herbal industry is projected to double to billion Rs. In the s, the annual sales of the Indian herbal industry were about 23 billion Rs. By the end of , the domestic market is expected to reach billion Rs.

The export market for medicinal plants appears to be growing faster than the Indian domestic market. India not only has a great role to play as a supplier of herbal products for the domestic market, but it can also benefit from the tremendous potential afforded by overseas markets. Currently, the Indian herbal market is valued at 70 billion Rs. Indian herbal medicine has now become a rich source of innovative drug discovery [ ].

In India, the turnover of IHM industry is estimated to be more than 88 billion Rs; the domestic market is of the order of 40 billion Rs with a total consumption of all IMMs to a figure of , metric tons MT. India has 9, HM manufacturing units, but 8, of them are small scale, one having an annual turnover of less than 10 million Rs.

Some of the well-known units with an annual turnover of more than million Rs. It is well known that ancient Hippocratic-Greek medical knowhow was adapted and improved by Arabian herbalists, pharmacologists, chemists, and physicians in the Middle Ages. Furthermore, the majority of Arabs are Muslims, and Arabic culture and Islamic ideology are closely related. The Arabic world used to be the center of scientific and medical knowledge for many centuries from to CE after the fall of the Roman Empire. Since they had their share in the direction and introduction of that great movement, it may reasonably be claimed that they are with us yet.

During the middle ages, AM contributed greatly to the development of modern medicine and pharmacy in Europe.

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For instance, the European pharmacopoeia relied on Muslim writings and information therein until the late 19th century. Despite the scarcity of medical knowledge in the Koran, Arabs adopted the ancient medical practices that originated from Mesopotamia, Greece, Rome, Persia, and India or even China [ , ].

In the early 11th century, Avicenna — , a great philosopher and physician, incorporated a number of Chinese herbal preparations in his book Pharmacopoeia. Alchemy is the predecessor of chemical discipline that led to the development of natural science in modern times. Therefore, China is regarded as one of the key players in advancing modern civilization, particularly in the area of scientific methodology.

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Alchemy was invented during the period of Warring States in ancient China, but it vanished for no apparent reason in the middle of the Tang Dynasty. Nevertheless, the spirit of exploration of the ancient Chinese is praise-worthy. Several inventions by Taoist alchemists, such as cinnabar Zhu-Sha , orpiment Ci-Huang , and realgar Xiong-Huang in CHM, particularly gunpowder, have had a far-reaching impact on modern medicine and on the world in general [ ].

Although AM was at the forefront of medical knowledge in Renaissance Europe of the 15th century, unlike CM and IM, its herbal medicine was not well developed from the start. AM mainly integrated various herbal medicines and related technologies that originated from other countries and regions and established the foundation for the development of medicine and pharmacy in modern medicine [ , ]. Therefore, AM carried on the past heritage and opened up the future in the history of the development of human medicine Figure 8.

Achievements of Arabic medicine and pharmacy [ , ]. During the 8th century, Arabs in the Baghdad region were the first in history to separate medicine from pharmacological science. The world's first drug stores were established in the Arab world Baghdad, CE. The forms employed in that period are still used in therapy, and some formulations of drugs can be found in pharmacopoeias even today [ ]. The earliest records of herbs, which were written on clay tablets in cuneiform, were from Mesopotamia dating back to BCE.

The best known Egyptian pharmaceutical record is the Ebers Papyrus dating back to BCE , which documented some herbal medicines mostly from plants , with dosage forms including gargles, snuffs, poultices, infusions, pills, and ointments and vehicles using beer, milk, wine, and honey [ ]. Since the 8th century, the practice of AHM has been using natural remedies, both organic such as camel urine and inorganic types, for the prevention and treatment of diseases [ ].

Interestingly, pharmacological studies have revealed that camel urine treatment caused a significant cytotoxic effect on bone marrow cells in mice [ ]. The Middle East region is inhabited by more than 2, plant species, of which more than species are noted for their use as medicinal herbs or botanical pesticides; however, only — plant species are still in use in traditional Arab medicine for the treatment of various diseases [ ]. A survey of the plant species in the Mediterranean region by ethnopharmacologists indicated that — plant species are still in use [ , ].

In Israel, plant species are used in AM for the treatment of various diseases. Among these plants, there are 40 species used for treating skin diseases, 27 species for treating digestive disorders, 22 species for treating liver diseases, 16 species for treating respiratory diseases and coughing, 22 species for treating various forms of cancer, and 9 species for weight loss and lowering cholesterol [ ]. However, more than 1, kinds of herbal medicines were used by Islamic physicians during the period of the Arab Empire — The dosage forms utilized in AHM include decoction, infusion, oil, juice, syrup, roasted materials, fresh salads or fruits, macerated plant parts, milky sap, poultice, and paste, of which some formulations of herbal drugs are still used today [ ].

Although AHM is the first choice for many people in dealing with ailments in the Middle East, most of the herbalists such as those in Jordan , who acquire the expertise from their predecessors, are not properly trained in herbal medicine [ ] Figure 9. Past and present of Arabic herbal medicine [ ]. In contrast to CHM or IHM, the physical characteristics of the herbal size, shape, color, texture, and taste traditionally served as important criteria in their selection for therapeutic purposes. For example, seeds with kidney shape are used for treating kidney stones; roots shaped similar to the human body or fruits that resemble human testicles are traditionally used to stimulate sexual desire or treat sexual weakness; a yellow decoction or juice obtained from herbal leaves is used for treating jaundice and liver diseases [ , ].

In this section, two important issues related to herbal medicine are discussed. Due to shortage of scientific evidence on the molecular mechanism of herbs, it is often considered as only an alternative choice to conventional drugs. Here, we attempt to describe the feasibility and superiority of herbal medicine containing complex and multicompounds as medication using logical concepts in philosophy. Currently, multidrug therapy or polypharmacy, also known as multiple drug intake or cocktail treatment, which involves therapeutic interventions using combinations of drugs herbal versus chemical, herbal versus herbal, and chemical versus chemical through pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic pathways or both [ — ], is commonly practiced in clinical situations.

It is believed that multidrug therapy produces beneficial effects that do not occur when using each drug alone. Nevertheless adverse drug reaction ADR , another important public health problem, may be enhanced after multidrug combination treatment through not only drug-drug interaction, but also herb-herb or drug-herb interaction [ , ]. For example, as a monotherapy, St John's wort extract has an encouraging safety profile. However, in some cases, life-threatening interactions were reported when used together with other drugs [ ].

More often than not, the pathogenesis of diseases is related to multiple targets rather than a single target. Asai et al. However, at present, the treatment of patients with TB or multidrug-resistant TB using conventional drug therapy requires 6 or 18—24 months, respectively [ ]. A polypill containing amlodipine, losartan, hydrochlorothiazide, and simvastatin produces a significant effect in preventing heart attacks and strokes [ ].

Therefore, the multitarget herbal formula can produce a wide range of therapeutic effects. Herbal formulations evolved from thousands of years of experience in practicing herbal medicine. While therapeutic interventions using multiple drugs in modern medicine are based on an understanding of disease processes and drug mechanisms, the use of multicomponent herbal formulae Fu-Fang in Chinese herbal medicine is based on CM theory and practical experience. For instance, the common cold is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system, which primarily affects the nasal cavity.

However, cold symptoms typically include coughing, sore throat, runny nose, headache, fever, and discomfort in the entire body. So far, no single chemical entity can simultaneously alleviate all clinical manifestations of common cold. Therefore a typical over-the-counter cold remedy is composed of multiple drugs, such as aspirin A , phenacetin P , and caffeine C , in an APC tablet.

One and one can add up to more than two. Excessive medical treatment and medication, including the consumption of herbal medications, is a global trend, especially in developed countries. Countless facts have indicated that herbal preparations or formulations can be used for the treatment of many common as well as complex diseases for all ages, with a minimum of adverse side effects compared to conventional drugs.

Together with the long history of their use, plant-derived herbs and herbal products are gaining popularity in the global market as registered drugs, dietary supplements, health care products, cosmetics, and so forth. Medicinal plants are highly esteemed as a rich source of new therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of diseases. The sales of herbal drugs or related products are expected to increase at an annual rate of 6. Of the , higher plant species on earth, more than 80, are of medicinal value even in the genome era.

In Brazil, it is estimated that there are almost 55, native species, at least 1, documented medicinal plants, and probably many more undocumented species used by various indigenous groups [ ]. It can be expected that natural medicines, particularly herbal medicine, will make a growing or even a decisive contribution to human health care again. Some of these compounds include tubocurarine, morphine, codeine, aspirin, atropine, pilocarpine, ephedrine, vinblastine, vincristine, taxol, podophyllotoxin, camptothecin, digitoxigenin, gitoxigenin, digoxigenin, capsaicin, allicin, curcumin, and artemisinin.

Unfortunately, many plant species on earth have become endangered as the consumption of herbs and herbal products continues to increase world-wide. Traditional herbal medicine uses remedies derived from plants, animals, metals, and minerals. If herbal resources are inappropriately exploited, the extinction of many plant species will inevitably occur, with a resulting adverse alteration of the ecological environment. To treasure and maintain the gifts from mother nature Hindu philosophy regards the Earth as a living being, i. Therefore, it is high time to formulate strategies to avoid the overexploitation of herbal resources.

Despite current advances in science and medicine, disease remains a serious threat to public health in both developed and developing countries, urban and rural areas, and all ethnic groups. Ancient and modern people take medicines to fight illness or to feel better when they are sick. Most medicines conventional drugs at present are chemically synthesized and some are isolated from naturally occurring plants on the basis of their use in traditional medicine.

However, our ancestors took only certain kinds of specific natural remedies to fight or prevent a specific illness. Because modern drug development is a high-risk and therefore high-failure commercial endeavor and synthetic drugs have a high rate of adverse events; there is a universal trend of using herbal medications or related products.

Based on cultures and geographical regions, various kinds of herbal remedies have evolved. Herbal medicines are therefore an integral part of culture and geographical environment, and various kinds of herbal medicines have their own unique way of understanding and treating a disease. However, the globalization of trade and market has brought about an integration of different kinds of herbal medicines over the world. At present, herbal medications or related products in the global market are derived from Chinese herbs, Indian herbs, Arabic herbs, and Western herbs.

As for the medications derived from herbs, they no longer belong to any herbal series or category and have essentially become equivalent to conventional drugs. To date, herbal products are widely available to consumers and have become increasingly popular throughout the world. There is no doubt that herbal products will continue to play a crucial role in the health care system of human societies, not to mention that secondary metabolites of plants are economically important as drugs, fragrances, pigments, food additives, and pesticides Figure 11 [ ].

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. Published online Apr Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract In recent years, increasing numbers of people have been choosing herbal medicines or products to improve their health conditions, either alone or in combination with others. Introduction Herbalism is a traditional medicinal or folk medicine practice based on the use of plants and plant extracts. Table 1 Some important texts in the historical developmental process of Chinese materia medica [ 33 , 34 ].

Open in a separate window. Species in China and CHM Nature has endowed China with a vast landscape with varied geographical features and a resultant wealth of medicinal plants. Figure 1. Figure 2. Pharmaceutics of CHM Dosage form, also known as routes of administration, is a mixture of components with medicinal properties and nondrug components excipient or vehicle. Figure 3. Since then, probably the largest body of stone sculpture was the series of column statues and reliefs produced for the great European Gothic cathedrals of Chartres, Notre Dame de Paris, Amiens, Reims, Cologne, among many others, during the period Stones from all three principal categories of rock formation have been sculpted, including igneous eg.

Pure white Italian Carrara marble was used in Roman art and in Italian Renaissance Sculpture by artists like Donatello and Michelangelo, while Greek artists preferred Pentelic marble to make the Parthenon sculptures. See also: Marble Sculpture.

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Irish sculpture in the late medieval era was principally confined to Celtic High Crosses , made from granite. Supreme examples of marble sculpture are Venus de Milo c. The best-known form of hardstone sculpture, jade carving has been a speciality of Chinese master craftsmen ever since Neolithic times. Nephrite and Jadeite are the two most common types of jade stone, although bowenite a form of serpentine is also used. The Chinese attribute important qualities to jade, including purity, beauty, longevity, even immortality, and sculptors value jade stones for their lustre, translucent colours and shades.

Wood carving is the oldest and most continuous type of sculpture. Especially convenient for small works, wood carving was widely practised during the Prehistoric age, and later during the era of Early Christian sculpture - see, for instance, the gilded oak carving known as the Gero Cross , Cologne Cathedral - and had its Golden Age in the West, especially in Germany, during the era of late Medieval art : witness the exquisite religious limewood carvings of the German wood-carvers Veit Stoss and Tilman Riemenschneider Later, in the Baroque era, wood was often coated in plaster stucco and painted, in the manner of ancient Egyptian art.

Great modern wood-sculptors include Henry Moore known for his elmwood Reclining Figure , and Barbara Hepworth Sculpting in bronze is a complicated process which was developed independently in China, South America and Egypt. Bronze casting requires the modelling of a form in clay, plaster or wax, which is later removed after the molten bronze has been poured.

The lost-wax method was a common technique during the Renaissance era. It was also a widely used technique in African sculpture from Benin and Yoruba. Sculpting in clay dates from the Paleolithic era of the Stone Age. Known when fired as terracotta sculpture , it is the most plastic of all sculpting methods, versatile, light, inexpensive and durable.

Although clay mainly used for preliminary models, later cast in bronze or carved in stone, it has also been used to produce full-scale sculpture. The earliest known clay sculpture is the Venus of Dolni Vestonice c. A third prehistoric masterpiece is the Thinker of Cernavoda c. However, the most famous example of clay sculpture must be the Chinese Qin Dynasty Terracotta Army the 'Terracotta Warriors' , a collection of 8, clay warriors and horses unearthed in in Shaanxi province, China. Dating to BCE, each of the 8, clay soldiers is unique, with a different facial expression and hairstyle.

Other traditional materials employed to create sculptures include ivory and whalebone, as well as precious metals. Famous works made from precious stones include the Mesopotamian sculpture known as the Ram in a Thicket c. Modern Materials Used in 20th Century Sculpture. Materials employed by 20th century sculptors include secondary materials such as concrete, as well as an endless list of modern materials such as stainless steel, fibreglass, aluminium, foam rubber, papier mache, bicycle-parts, plastics, stained glass, "found" items, and so on.

For more about certain types of postmodernist plastic art, see: Ice sculpture and also Sand art. Notable 20th century sculptures made from non-traditional materials include:. By Kurt Schwitters Both by the Surrealist artist Salvador Dali By the Superrealist American sculptor Duane Hanson By the contemporary Neo-expressionist artist Jeff Koons b. By the "contemporary Surrealist" Louise Bourgeois By the postmodernist sculptor and artist Damien Hirst b. The basic traditional forms of this 3-D art are: free-standing sculpture, which is surrounded on all sides by space; and relief sculpture encompassing bas-relief, alto-relievo or haut relief, and sunken-relief , where the design remains attached to a background, typically stone or wood.

Examples of relief work can be seen in megalithic art such as the complex spiral engravings found at Newgrange Ireland , on Trajan's Column in Rome, the Temple of Zeus at Olympia, and the Parthenon. Gothic architectural reliefs appear on all major European Cathedrals of the period: witness the Saints on the south trancept of Chartres cathedral, and the apostles on the north trancept of Rheims cathedral.

It can also be classified by its subject matter. A statue, for instance, like the two versions of David by Donatello and Michelangelo, is usually a representational full length 3-D portrait of a person, while a bust usually depicts only the head, neck and shoulders - see the bust of George Washington by Jean-Antoine Houdon A statue of a person on horseback, such as the one by Giambologna of Cosimo de' Medici in Florence, is termed an equestrian sculpture.

Religious wood-carving was taken to new heights during the Northern Renaissance by master carvers like: Tilman Riemenschneider and Veit Stoss, known for their intricate wooden altarwork and figurines, while the Baroque Counter-Reformation stimulated supreme examples of Catholic Christian art in the form of bronze and marble sculptures by inter alia Gianlorenzo Bernini , known for the Cornaro Chapel series including The Ecstasy of St Teresa. Modern secular public art features famous sculptures like the Statue of Liberty , the Chicago Picasso - a series of metal figures produced for the Chicago Civic Centre and the architectural sculpture The Spire of Dublin , known as the 'spike', created by Ian Ritchie b.

Contemporary public sculpture continues to challenge traditional concepts of 3-D art through its new spatial concepts and its use of everyday materials assembled or created in numerous installation-type and fixed forms of sculpture. Since the s, so-called modern art has been replaced by contemporary art or postmodernism.

Unlike the earlier modernists, today's postmodernist sculptors eg. Pop artists like Claes Oldenburg, Robert Indiana and Neo-Pop artist Jeff Koons , feel free to use a wider variety of materials, images and methods of display. Styles tend to be more localized, as today's tendency among contemporary art movements is to distrust the grand ideas and internationalism of the modern art movements of the late 19th century and early-mid 20th century.

All rights reserved. David by Michelangelo. What is Sculpture? The Kiss , by Auguste Rodin. This influential marble cast of which there are three copies typifies Rodin's unique ability to express intense emotion through the physicality of sculpture. Ever-Expanding Art Form This is because the definition or meaning of sculpture has widened a great deal during the 20th century. Definition of Traditional Sculpture Traditional sculpture prior to the 20th century had four main defining characteristics.